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October 13, 2012
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Typhoon Soviet Attack Submarine by PaintFan08 Typhoon Soviet Attack Submarine by PaintFan08
Typhoon-class SSN

Country: Soviet Union/Russian Republic
Primary Shipyards: Polyandry, Sevastopol
Crew: 115

Other Users: Republic of China and India

Armament Per Class:

Typhoon I: 6x Bow 533mm Torpedo Tubes
-Type 53 ASW/ASUW Torpedoes
-Sound-wave Acoustical Decoy
-Type 53 Submersible Mines

Typhoon II: 6x Bow 533mm Torpedo Tubes
-Type 53 ASW/ASUW Torpedoes
-SS-N-13 Shark Anti-Ship Missiles
-Sound-wave Acoustical Decoy
-Type 53 Submersible Mines

Typhoon III: 4x Bow 533mm Torpedo Tubes
-Type 53 ASW/ASUW Torpedoes
-SS-N-13 Shark Anti-Ship Missiles
-Sound-wave Acoustical Decoy
-Type 53 Submersible Mines

2x Bow 650mm Torpedo Tubes
-Type 65 ASW/ASUW Torpedoes
-VA-111 Shkval Rocket Torpedoes
-SS-N-18 Swordfish Anti-Ship Missiles
-Siren Acoustical Decoy

Note: Western Naval designations used for Soviet Submarines

The Soviet Navy during the Second World War largely consisted of a large and somewhat advance submarine arm. Long range diesel electric submarines stalked Allied warships and cargo vessels from the depths of the Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Soviet home waters. Initially they were quite effective, sinking some of the most famous Allied ships, the carrier Illustrious, German battleship Bismarck, and brought America into the war with the destruction of the USS Arizona. Naturally the Allies stepped up their anti-submarine warfare (ASW) efforts in response. Convoys with sonar equipped escorts, radar equipped patrol aircraft, and the development of homing torpedoes began to turn the tide against the Russian subs. The Whiskeys, Foxtrots, and other attack subs were hit hard. Not even the Red Army approached the lost rate of the Soviet Submarine Force. Very few Russian crews returned to their home ports by the end of the war. Despite these losses the Soviet Union knew that its navy needed submarines and once rearmament began, would aim to produce the best they could.

Initially the Soviet Navy focused on restocking its fleet of diesel electric (SSK) attack submarines. However by the late 1950s the Russians began to experiment with their first nuclear power attack subs. These early results however were very dangerous ships. Their reactors were poorly designed and released higher than average radiation counts. Several early ships suffered critical failures. One infamous incident, that of the sub K-19 was lost with all hands. Eventually Soviet reactor designs began to get their machines under control. The KGB made much work of stealing Western and Japanese nuclear reactor designs (America was the first nation to launch a nuclear powered attack submarine, SSN). The second generation of reactor designs allowed for safer submarines. These were the November I and II class boats.

While their dangerous reactors had been overcome, the November SSNs were noisy. American and European ASW experts often mocked the noise level radiated by the Soviet subs. Combined with poorer sonar systems, many Novembers were easily tracked by the Western or Japanese counterparts. Eventually Soviet naval designers pushed to develop a new generation of attack submarine. Their results came from a mix of new Soviet engineers, technological developments, and more KGB espionage. The prototype of what would become the workhorse of the Soviet Navy during World War III was known as Project 671. It featured new design ideas being incorporated at the time, such as the teardrop shaped hull, which gave better underwater performance and speed. In addition the Soviets had done as much as they could to quiet their boats. One weakness held by all nuclear powered submarines was the reactor cooling pump. Since it always needed to be in operation aboard SSN, it was a source of noise. For the 671, it received a new reactor which included a much quieter cooling pump. When the first 671s were monitored by the Royal Navy, their ASW personnel complimented the much quieter Soviet sub.

Soviet designers also borrowed from their American counterparts, placing their diving planes on the sail rather than the hull as in most other Soviet submarines. Eventually American naval intelligence gave the codename Typhoon to the 671. The first production run of the Typhoon would be called ‘one’. The Typhoon I entered service in the mid 1960s. European navies were the first to encounter the Typhoon in operational conditions. In 1966 the British carrier Ark Royal and its battlegroup detected a Typhoon trying to break through their ASW screen. Although that Soviet submarine failed, a German surface group later that year didn’t discover the Typhoon I till it had gotten into torpedo range. Intelligence and encounters between Western SSNs and the Typhoons showed they still weren’t prefect. The Typhoon I had a weak sonar suite. Although its active systems were quite good, their passive ‘listening’ system left much to be desired. American and European SSNs would often be able to avoid detection as close as 3000 yards.

The Soviets understood the weaknesses of the Typhoon but the needs of a growing fleet demanded production continued resulting in the construction of over thirty Typhoon Is. Strong efforts to correct the weaknesses of the original design were made in the second production run of the Typhoon, class II. Entering service in 1968, the originally weak sonar system was replaced with a new model. Improved passive sonar gear increased the average detection range to 11,000 yards. Upgrades to electronics and crew conditions (a Soviet complaint) were also made. The Typhoon II was also the first Soviet submarine class to receive sound absorbing covering on their outer hull. It further reduced the Typhoon’s sound profile. A major offensive upgrade to the Typhoon II was the ability to fire anti-ship missiles from the torpedo tubes. While the Soviets had begun investing in a series of per missile submarines (Charlie & Oscar classes) attack sub skippers wanted the long range strike ability provided by the growing force of Soviet missiles. While the Typhoon II was an improvement Western designs also improved.

By the early 1970s new and more advanced SSNs were entering service with Soviet’s geopolitical rivals. America was backing up its Sturgeon-class fleet with the new Los Angeles-class SSN. Germany had the Type XXX, the French their Rubis SSN, Britain had the Trafalgar, and the Empire of Japan had introduced the Yūshio. All of these boats built on the strength held by the various maritime powers. Each had improved sonar, including new towed arrays of sensitive hydrophones which greatly improved their detection abilities. Combined with new computer assisted systems, guided weapons, and improved crews a modern SSN was far more deadly than a squadron of submarines from the Second World War. The Soviets now moving towards war with the United States felt pressure to develop a new SSN of their own. However the wishes of Admiral Gorshkov and the Soviet naval brass couldn’t overcome problems inside the Soviet shipbuilding industry. While the rise of the Soviet’s naval construction abilities is one of the greatest feats of their pre-war build up, it was still racked with problems. Development of the Project 971 attack sub (what would become the Akula-class which saw late war service) was behind schedule and not likely to see full scale production till 1975.

As a stop gap till the newer 971 was produced, the Typhoon entered a third series run. The Typhoon III would be the most advanced of the three models and as a result the most feared by Allied naval commanders. New bow and side mounted sonars continued to improve the Typhoon III’s sensor abilities. In addition the Soviets had finally developed their own towed array. This gave the Typhoon III its distinctive ‘pod’ above its rudder. Additional upgrades were made to its mast mounted radar system and communications. A new satellite system allowed the Typhoon III to maintain contact with the various Soviet fleet headquarters (an upgrade many to the other versions as well as they rotated in for overhauls). Weapons upgrades were also made in the form of two new 650mm torpedo tubes. These tubes allowed for the firing of the Type 65 multipurpose torpedo, the Soviet answer to the American ADCAP. The larger tube also accommodated the larger SS-N-18 Swordfish ASM. The Swordfish was an improvement on the Shark with a longer range and a much faster missile.

The Typhoon classes became a common sight around the world as the Soviet Navy traveled among its World Socialist Allies. All throughout the pre-war period Soviet and Allied submarines squared off in every possible way short of shooting at each other. Its later models gained respect from the American and European sub forces. Typhoons were also heavily involved with the opening of the attack on the U.S. Navy in 1975. American ships of war and commerce came under immediate attack worldwide when the Third World War broke out. Six Typhoon IIs and IIIs were involved in the Battle of the Caribbean which saw the lost of an American carrier group. Besides their offensive role, Soviet submarines had the important job of protecting their supply convoys traveling to the United States. Often Typhoons would find themselves squaring off with American boats in long dueling stalks. One thing that frustrated Allied commanders but was loved by Soviet ones, was the survivability of the Typhoon class. All three versions of the Typhoon had a double hull arrangement. Vital equipment was layered between the outer hull and inner pressure hull. The batteries, ballast, and other equipment often acted as armor for the Typhoons. American torpedoes, notably their Mark 46 ASW torpedo had small warheads. As a result one torpedo strike to the hull wouldn’t doom a Typhoon. Eventually the up gunning of warheads (such as the Mark 50) defeated this. However the Typhoon’s were very survivable overall and more than one damaged Typhoon got its crew back to port where another sub would have sunk.

Typhoons would fight in every major naval engagement and in every maritime theater of war. As in the Second World War, the Soviet submarine force scored impressive kills. K-542 a Typhoon III with the Northern Fleet sunk the American carrier USS Truman although failed to survive a counter attack by an American destroyer. The Typhoons of the Soviet Black Seas Fleet proved to be a real thorn to the European Alliance in the Mediterranean Sea. The Italian carrier Mussolini and German cruiser Rommel were both victims of Typhoons. Britain’s most successful SSN, HMS Churchill was sunk in a twelve hour duel with K-508 south of Cyprus. The most successful Typhoon submarine to survive the war was K-568 commanded by Captain M. Ramius. K-568 a Typhoon III sank nearly two dozen ships and six Allied submarines during the war.

Allied ASW abilities were just as effective during World War III as they had been thirty years before. Only a single Typhoon I survived the war, captured in its port in Mexico where it was tied up with war damage. Losses among the Typhoon IIs were better but 62 percent of those were lost. The advanced Typhoon IIIs were the luckiest with only 43 percent loses. Once again the Soviet submarine forces across the board suffered with many of their SSKs, SSGNs, and SSNs sunk. As part of disarmament agreements taken on by the Russian Republic, most of their older Typhoon IIs and IIIs were scrapped. Thirty remained in service between 1980 and 1990. The Typhoon IIIs would see combat again in the early 1990s when the Empire Japan launched its war of aggression against the Russian Republic. Although much reduced in numbers, the remaining Typhoon IIIs had good commanders with nearly all of them being combat veterans. Although the Typhoon IIIs would take heavy losses to the Japanese, they remained effective even against the IJN.

Today ten Typhoon IIIs remain active in the Russian Navy, all with its Northern Fleet. Russia has sold the Typhoon IIIB an export version to China and India. Both navies have made indigenous improvements to the design (recent satellite shots indicate the Indian Navy is replacing the sonar in the bow/hull and towed array) while the Russians did upgrade most the C&C systems on board.

------------
Hey everybody I know long time since I’ve done any art but here is the Typhoon class from Red Alert 2. Naturally I’ve changed the design up a bit. Originally I tried to keep some of the more classic traits in my first design but it just didn’t look right for an attack sub. So I opted to model the Typhoon after the Soviet Victor class. As a nod to its game origin it has bow mounted diving planes (hard to see I know).

Hope you guys like, feel free to comment!
Add a Comment:
 
:iconemilion-3:
Emilion-3 Featured By Owner Feb 25, 2014  Hobbyist Writer
IMpressive.
Reply
:iconpaintfan08:
PaintFan08 Featured By Owner Mar 12, 2014
Thanks, I've done a German attack sub to from an alternate US-Nazi Cold War.
Reply
:iconemilion-3:
Emilion-3 Featured By Owner Mar 12, 2014  Hobbyist Writer
Huh.
Reply
:iconpaintfan08:
PaintFan08 Featured By Owner Mar 13, 2014
There's another submarine design in my gallery is what I was letting you know.
Reply
:iconemilion-3:
Emilion-3 Featured By Owner Mar 14, 2014  Hobbyist Writer
Ok then.
Reply
:icondahak-ii:
DAHAK-II Featured By Owner Mar 8, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
the Typhoon-class is a twin-screw SSBN, those look to be Akula-class. the Conning tower on the Typhoon was much further back, stationed behind the 24 missile tubes. or is this something new?
Reply
:iconpaintfan08:
PaintFan08 Featured By Owner Mar 10, 2013
This is a realistic version of the 'Typhoon' Soviet submarine in the videogame Red Alert 2. In that game they had a submarine unit that looked like a cartoon version of the real life Typhoon. So I did it as a realistic SSN, basing the hull on the Victor class SSN. As a nod to game I put the diving planes on the sail. I did a different look because the Typhoon configuration isn't idea for a attack submarine.

That's why it doesn't look like the real life Typhoon SSBN.
Reply
:icondahak-ii:
DAHAK-II Featured By Owner Mar 11, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
OOOHHHH, I missed the Red Alert 2 bit. . . now I get it.
Reply
:icondorian-g-r-a-y:
Dorian-G-r-a-y Featured By Owner Jan 4, 2013
These are great! What program did you use to create them? Did they come from scratch or did you work from an existing technical drawing?

I ask because I am trying to create some of my own and haven't settled on a program to work from.

Anyway, great work.
Reply
:iconpaintfan08:
PaintFan08 Featured By Owner Jan 5, 2013
I start out in MS Paint. The shape is based on the Victor class of Soviet submarines. I looked up a picture of one's hull and used that as my reference. All the lines base colors were done in Paint. After I had the base done I went into GIMP. Its a free photo/art manipulation program. There I added the text and used a shading tool for the shadows, which helps it look more 3D.

I don't get too complicated, that's about the limit of my abilities. Hope that helps
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